NARRATOLOGY: Сторінка розповідних теорій
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Prince, Gerald. A Dictionary of Narratology
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In this dictionary, I define, explain, and illustrate terms that are specific to narratology (e.g., narreme, extradiegetic); terms whose narratological acceptation differs from their other ones (e.g., voice, transformation); and terms whose "ordinary" or technical meaning belongs to a semantic domain that is prominent in or essential to narratological description and argumentation (e.g., code, rewrite rule).
My list is not exhaustive. I have retained only terms that enjoy wide currency in narratology—terms that are used and can be used by narratologists with different theoretical or methodological preferences—as well as a few terms that I consider helpful and that might gain currency and a few other terms that are no longer very fashionable but once were. Furthermore, I have concentrated on terms used in connection with verbal rather than nonverbal narratives: I believe that this bias reflects the biases of narratology itself. I have attempted not to neglect any important movement: I have drawn on the Anglo-Saxon tradition originating with Henry James and Percy Lubbock, the German tradition of Lammert or Stanzel, the Russian Formalists and the Russian semioticians, the French structuralists, and the Tel Aviv poeticians; I have taken into account the narratological labors of linguists, psychologists, anthropologists, historians, and students of artificial intelligence; and I have not forgotten Aristotle. Nevertheless, I have been partial to what constitutes perhaps the most influential narratological work of the past twenty years, that of "French" or "French-inspired" narratologists. Finally, I have left out a large number of
 terms which are no doubt pertinent to the analysis of narrative but which I regard as belonging more appropriately in dictionaries of rhetoric, semiotics, linguistics, or literature {e.g., cooperative principle and allegory or novel and romance).
If my list of terms is not exhaustive, neither are my explanations of these terms complete. In the first place, f have not attempted to provide a thorough survey of definitions of or opinions on any given term; rather, I have sought to provide an overview, and I have given what I consider to be the most important and useful definitions or opinions. In the second place, I have repeatedly opted for short formulations, in the belief that a dictionary should (and can) only be a helpful starting point. (The few cases in which I have supplied more lengthy formulations are intended to suggest the richness of the discussions that a particular term and the notions it designates have provoked.) I have tried to keep technical language to a minimum, and I have been spare with examples (paradoxically, they often lead to confusion rather than clarification); but I have not avoided repetitions, since I have a lot of faith in their pedagogical effectiveness.
The terms selected are presented in a single alphabetical listing. I have made generous use of cross-references, in spite of the anxiety they might create, to indicate relations, parallels, and contexts and to point to further examples or clarifications: when a term characterized in the dictionary appears in the body of an entry, it is printed in SMALL CAPITALS. The few exceptions to this practice pertain to such recurrent terms as narrator or character: a cross-reference seemed, at times, superfluous. Furthermore, whenever I thought that the characterization (or knowledge) of one or more other terms in the dictionary would enrich the user's understanding of a particular entry, I have added a statement of the form "See also SUCH AND SUCH" at the very end of the entry. I have also given bibliographical references at the end of most entries in order to allow the user of the dictionary to investigate the topics further and in order to identify at least some of the sources on which my formulations are based. Again, the few exceptions to this practice—e.g., conjoining, constitutional model, mediator—are cases where the context, cross-references, and/or cross-referential statements make bibliographical indications superfluous. When an entry has two or more definitions (e.g., competence, contact, plot) and if pertinent, the formulation
 of the subentries points to the bibliographical item(s) that are particularly relevant to each definition. The references are collected in the bibliography to be found at the end of the volume.
When I started to prepare this dictionary, I wanted it to give a sense of narratology as a discipline and to constitute a space for indicating some of the agreements, compatibilities, and divergences obtaining in a field that has undergone remarkable growth since the 1960s and the heyday of structuralism. I also—and even more so— wanted it to constitute a simple guide to many of the terms, concepts, and ambitions characterizing narratological study as well as a stimulant to the development, sharpening, and refining of narratological tools. I hope that I have been at least partly successful.
I would like to thank the University of Pennsylvania for granting me a leave in the fall of 1985 which allowed me to write much of this dictionary. I would also like to thank Ellen F. Prince for patient and invaluable suggestions. I feel indebted to the readers of the manuscript for the University of Nebraska Press: their comments were of great benefit.

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